TIếng Anh 12 - Chuyên đề 2: Các cụm từ và mệnh đề (phrases and clauses)

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  1. CHUYÊN ĐỀ 2: CÁC CỤM TỪ VÀ MỆNH ĐỀ (PHRASES AND CLAUSES) 1. Cụm từ và mệnh đề chỉ sự nhượng bộ (Phrase and clause of concession) a. Cụm từ Cụm từ chỉ sự nhượng bộ thường được bắt đầu bằng giới từ ‘In spite of’ hoặc ‘Despite’  Cấu trúc: In spite of/ Despite + Noun/ Noun phrase/ V-ing Ví dụ: Despite the bad weather, they enjoyed the picnic. In spite of his old age, he leads an active life.  Chú ý: Cụm từ có ‘Despite’ hoặc ‘In spite of’ có thể được đặt trước hoặc sau mệnh đề chính. Nếu đứng trước mệnh đề chính, ta phải thêm dấu phẩy vào trước mệnh đề chính, nếu đứng sau mệnh đề chính, ta không cần thêm dấu phẩy. Ví dụ: She couldn’t pass the exam despite studying hard. Despite studying hard, she couldn’t pass the exam. b. Mệnh đề Mệnh đề trạng ngữ chỉ sự nhượng bộ là mệnh đề phụ chỉ sự tương phản của 2 hành động trong câu. Mệnh đề này thường bắt đầu với những từ nối: although, though, even though, no matter, whatever (dù, cho dù) ❖ Although, though, even though  Cấu trúc: Although/ though/ even though + S + V Ví dụ: Although he is intelligent, he can’t do this puzzle. She couldn’t win the beauty contest even though she was beautiful.  Chú ý: - Đăng sau 3 cụm từ này phải là một mệnh đề hoàn chỉnh (có cả chủ ngữ và động từ). - Các mệnh đề này có thể đứng trước hoặc sau mệnh đề chính. Nếu đứng trước mệnh đề chính, ta phải thêm dấu phấy vào trước mệnh đề chính, nếu đứng sau mệnh đề chính, ta không cần thêm dấu phẩy. Ví dụ: Although the weather was cold, they enjoyed the picnic. Jane will be admitted to the university even though she has bad grades. Anna was fond of Jim though he often annoyed her.
  2.  No matter, whatever  Cấu trúc: No matter + who/ what/ when/ where/ why/ how (adj, adv) + S + V = Whoever/ Whatever (+N)/ whenever/ whereever/ whyever/ however (adj/ adv) + S + V, Ví dụ: No matter who you are, I love you. = Whoever you are, I still love you. Whatever he says, I don’t believe him = No matter what he say, I don’t believe him.  Chú ý: Mệnh đề bắt đầu bằng No matter hoặc Whatever thường được đặt trước mệnh đề chính, mang nghĩa ‘dù đi nữa’ 2. Phrase and clause of reason (Cụm từ và mệnh đề chỉ lý do) a. Cụm từ Cụm từ chỉ lý do thường được bắt đầu bằng: because of, owing to, due to, as a result of, on account of  Cấu trúc: Because of Owing to/ due to As a result of On account of  Chú ý: - Cụm từ thường được sử dụng nhất là because of. - Các cụm từ này có thể đứng trước hoặc sau mệnh đề chính, mang nghĩa là ‘vì, do’. Nếu đứng trước mệnh đề chính, ta phải thêm dấu phẩy vào trước mệnh đề chính, nếu đứng sau mệnh đề chính, ta không cần thêm dấu phấy. Ví dụ: Jane was late because of the rain. = Because of the rain, Jane was late. Because of the traffic jam, the students arrived late. The project has to be abandoned due to a lack of government funding. Owing to his illness, he could not continue with his studies.
  3. She dies as a result of her injuries. b. Mệnh đề Mệnh đề trạng ngữ chỉ lý do là một mệnh đề phụ chỉ lý do hoặc nguyên nhân của hành động được nêu trong mệnh đề chính. Mệnh đề trạng ngữ chỉ lý do thường được nối với mệnh đề chính nhờ các từ nối như: because, since, as.  Chú ý: - since và as thường đặt ở đầu câu khi người nghe đã biết rõ nguyên nhân hoặc nguyên nhân không quá quan trọng. - because là từ nối được sử dụng phổ biến nhất  Cấu trúc: Because/ Since/ As + S + V Ví dụ: He came ten minutes late because he missed the first bus. As the weather was bad, they didn’t take part in the trip. 3. Cụm từ và mệnh đề chỉ kết quả a. Cụm từ chỉ kết quả ❖ too to V (quá không thể làm điều gì). S + be/ V + too + adj/ adv + to V  Cấu trúc: Ví dụ: He is too short to play basketball. Tom ran too slowly to become the winner of the race. This book is too dull for you to read.  Lưu ý: Cấu trúc này thường dùng với nghĩa phủ định.  enough to V (đủ để có thể làm điều gì đó)  Cấu trúc: S + be/ V + adj/ adv + enough + to V Ví dụ: Marry isn't old enough to drive a car. She speaks Spanish well enough to be an interpreter. It is cold enough to wear a heavy jacket. b. Mệnh đề chỉ kết quả Mệnh đề chỉ kết quả là mệnh đề phụ được dùng đề chỉ kết quả do hành động của mệnh đề chính gây ra: ❖ so that (quá đến nỗi)
  4. S + be/ V + so + adj/ adv + that + S + V Ví dụ: It was so dark that I couldn't see anything. The student had behaved so badly that he was dismissed from the class.  Chú ý: Nếu động từ trong mệnh đề chính là các động từ chỉ tri giác như look, appear, seem, feel, taste, smell, sound, ta dùng công thức với động từ to be. Ví dụ: The little girl looks so unhappy that we all feel sorry for her. The soup tastes so good that everyone will ask for more. Với danh từ đếm được số nhiều: SNếu + V trong + so câu+ many/ có many, few much, + plural few, countable little thì ta cónoun cấu +trúc: that + S + V Ví dụ: The Smiths had so many children that they formed their own baseball team. I had so few ion offers that is wasn't difficult to select one. There are so many people in the room that I feel tired. Với danh từ không đếm đưọc: Ví dụ: S + V + so + much/ little + uncountable noun + that + S + V He has invested so much money in the project that he can't abandon it now. The grass received so little water that it turned brown in the heat. S + V + so + adj + a + singular countable noun + that  Chú ý: Một cấu trúc khác của so that Ví dụ: It was so hot a day that we decided to stay indoors. It was so interesting a book that he couldn't put it down.  such that (quá đến nỗi) S + V + such + (a/an) + adj + N + that + S + V Ví dụ: It was such a hot day that we decided to stay at home. She has such exceptional abilities that everyone is jealous of her. There are such beautiful pictures that everybody will want one. It is such an intelligent boy that we all admire him. This is such difficult homework that I will never finish it.
  5. 4. Cụm từ và mệnh đề chỉ mục đích a. Cụm từ Khẳng định S + V + to/ in order to/ so as to + V Phủ định S + V + in order not to/ so as not to + V Ví dụ: He went to France to study French. He does morning exercises in order to improve his health. She is hurrying so as not to miss the bus.  Chú ý: Giới từ for cũng dùng để chỉ mục đích - For + Noun: cũng có thể được dùng để nói đến mục đích của ai khi làm việc gì đó. Ví dụ: I went to the store for some bread. - For + O + to-inf. dùng để nói đến mục đích liên quan hành động của người khác Ví dụ: I gave him my address. I wanted him to write to me.  I gave him my address for him to write to me. b. Mệnh đề Khẳng định S + V + so that/ in order that + S + will/ can/ would/ could + V Phủ định S + V + so that/ in order that + S + will/ can/ would/ could + not + V Ví dụ: I’ll try my best to study English so that I can find a better job. I put the milk in the fridge in order that it won’t spoil. BÀI TẬP VẬN DỤNG Exercise 1: Change from in spite of/ despite although/though/even though. 1. Despite my warning, they went ahead with their plan.  2. They went swimming in spite of the coldness of the water.  3. In spite of being bad at pool, she beat him three times in a row.  4. She decided to go abroad for a year despite loving her boyfriend very much.  5. He went on holiday to Thailand in spite of the expensive airfare.
  6.  6. Socrates never had much money despite being very famous in his own day.  7. His career did not really take off despite his ambitions.  8. They managed to work together despite their differences of opinion.  9. Despite my headache I enjoyed the film.  10. Despite having enough money, he refused to buy a new car.  Exercise 2: Change from although/ though/ even though in spite of/ despite, starting as available. 1. Although he was tired, he walked to the station. Despite 2. Although it was noisy, the children slept well. The children 3. Though Linda earned a low salary, she gave money to her parents. In spite of 4. Tom went to work even though he didn’t feel very well. Tom 5. Their new product turned out to be a success though the market studies were pessimistic. Their 6. Julie failed the exam though she worked very hard. Julie 7. Although John got the highest result in the class, he still had problems with the teacher. In spite of 8. Although it was difficult, they managed to climb to the top of the mountain. In spite of 9. Even though he is a little overweight, he is actually quite fit. Despite 10. Although politicians are necessary for democracy, they are still liars and thieves. In spite of Exercise 3: Circle the correct answers. 1. Valencia is a fantastic place although/ despite being too hot in July and August
  7. 2. Cars are very useful in the city though/ in spite of they are expensive. 3. She’s a great person in spite of/ even though getting jealous over stupid things sometimes 4. In spite of/ despite of getting the highest result in the class, John still had problems with the teacher 5. The best things in life are free though/ even though love is often very expensive 6. I phone my brother in Thailand using Skype nearly every day despite/ though the time difference. 7. In spite/ In spite of losing her way twice, she arrived safely. 8. Although/ in spite of the fact the sun was shining, the water was cold. 9. Despite/ although he being hard working, Kevin failed the examination. 10. We stayed up late, in spite of/ although we were tired. Exercise 4: Choose the correct answers. 1. Tom wakes his parents up playing the guitar very softly. A. because B. in spite of C. because of D. although 2. Many people believe him he often tells a lie. A. because B. in spite of C. although D. because of 3. she was very hard working; she hardly earned enough to feed her family. A. In spite of B. Because C. Because of D. Although 4. her poorness, she feels happy. A. Although B. Because C. If D. In spite of 5. I went to the club last Saturday the heavy rain. A. because of B. because C. in spite of D. though 6. In spite of his hard work, he could not finish the job. A. As hard as he work B. Despite he worked hard C. Though he worked hard D. Although hard work 7. Despite the fact that it rained, we enjoyed our trip. A. Because of the rain B. Though it is raining C. Despite of the heavy rain D. Though it rained 8. Tom went to work although he didn’t feel very well. A. that he did not feel very well B. despite of the fact not feeling well
  8. C. because he did not feel very well D. despite not feeling very well 9. Although he is very old, he can walk to the station. A. In spite of his old age B. Despite his old age C. Despite the fact that he is old D. All are correct 10. I have tried hard but I can’t earn enough money. A. Although I have tried hard, but I can’t earn enough money. B. Although I have tried hard, I can’t earn enough money. C. In spite of I have tried hard, I can’t earn enough money. D. Despite I have tried hard, but I can’t earn enough money. 11. She stayed at home because her mother was sick. A. Despite her sick mother, she stayed at home. B. Because of her sick mother, she stayed at home. C. In spite of her sick mother, she stayed at home. D. A & C are correct. 12. Although he took a taxi, Bill arrived late for the concert. A. Bill arrived late for the concert because he takes a taxi. B. Bill arrived late for the concert because of the taxi. C. In spite of taking a taxi, Bill arrived late for the concert. D. Although Bill took a taxi, he can’t come to the concert in time. 13. In spite of his suffering from a bad cold, William went to school. A. Although William suffers from a bad cold, he went to school. B. Although William suffered from a bad cold, he went to school. C. William went to school although he is suffering from a bad cold. D. William went to school; he suffered from a bad cold although. 14. Despite the fact that it was snowing, I felt warm. A. In spite snowing, I felt warm. B. In spite of feeling warm, it was snowing. C. Although it was snowing, I felt warm. D. Although I felt warm, it was snowing. 15. Though he tried hard, he didn’t succeed.
  9. A. Despite he tried hard, he didn’t succeed. B. In spite of he tried hard, he didn’t succeed. C. In spite of trying hard, he didn’t succeed. D. Even though he tried hard, but he didn’t succeed. Exercise 5: Rewrite the sentences keeping the same meaning. 1. Although she didn’t want to see The Lord of the Rings, she enjoyed it in the end.  2. They visited Madrid although they didn’t have time to visit El Prado.  3. Although it was raining, we decided to go anyway.  4. The English actor Oliver Reed was often rude to people although he was always kind to animals.  5. Although he behaved badly, he wasn’t punished.  6. Although he had a good salary, he was unhappy in his job.  7. Although it was raining heavily, we played the match as planned.  8. Although my doctor had told me to stay in bed I went to work.  9. Although he takes a lot of exercises, he’s fat.  10. Although I had practiced for hours on end, my first golf ball ended up in the trees.  Exercise 6: Rewrite the sentences with no matter + wh-question word or wh- question word + ever. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.
  10. makes you disappointed, please let it go. she is, he still loves her. you are tired, you can sleep immediately. you told lies, I still cannot forgive you. beautiful you are, I still consider you as my sister. you need, I will stand by you. you go, you must be home before 10. you have done, he still does not believe you. tired I was, I didn’t sleep. you come from, I still consider you as my family. 2.2: PHRASE AND CLAUSE OF REASON Exercise 1: Choose the correct answers. 1. He got wet he forgot his umbrella. A. because of B. because C. but D. and 2. He stops working heavy raining. A. in spite of B. although C. despite D. because of 3. They have a lot of difficulties in their life their poverty. A. in spite of B. although C. because D. because of 4. Jill and Jolly were happy it was their both birthday party that day. A. because B. even though C. spite of D. Despite 5. Nobody could hear her she spoke too quietly. A. although B. because C. because of D. in spite of 6. We decided to leave early the party was boring. A. although B. despite C. because D. because of 7. We all feel sad the bad news A. because B. because of C. though D. despite 8. John lost his job his laziness. A. because of B. because C. in spite of D. though 9. We can't go to Julia's party we're going away that weekend. A. because B. because of C. although D. in spite of 10. Nam was absent from class yesterday he felt sick.
  11. A. so B. because C. although D. but Exercise 2: Choose the correct answers. 1. The boy can’t reach the shelf he’s not tall enough. A. because B. although C. even though D. and 2. She couldn’t unlock it she had the wrong key. A. while B. but C. though D. because 3. Nam failed the final exam he was lazy. A. while B. though C. because D. but 4. We watched TV the whole evening we had nothing better to do. A. because B. though C. so D. but 5. We didn’t go for a walk it was very cold. A. though B. because C. but D. so 6. They decided not to go out for a meal they were too tired. A. so B. because C. but D. if 7. I’m learning English I want to get a better job. A. or B. because C. therefore D. but 8. Last night we came to the show late the traffic was terrible. A. although B. despite C. and D. because 9. Lan couldn’t pass the exam she is too lazy. A. because B. because of C. although D. in spite of 10. his broken leg, he didn’t come to class yesterday. A. because B. because of C. despite D. so Exercise 3: Complete the sentences with because/ because of. 1. We delayed our trip the bad weather. 2. Sue’s eyes were red she had been crying. 3. My mother is always complaining the untidiness of my room. 4. The water in most river is unsafe to drink it’s polluted.
  12. 5. The trees were bend over the wind. 6. You can’t enter this secure areas you don’t have an official permit. 7. It’s unsafe to travel in that country the ongoing civil war. 8. Several people in the crowd became ill and fainted the extreme heat. 9. Mark didn’t go to work yesterday he didn’t feel well. 10. We couldn’t get into the disco the enormous crowd. Exercise 4: Complete the sentences with because/ because of. 1. I went home early I was feeling unwell. 2. We decided not to go out for a meal we were simply too tired. 3. I couldn’t get to sleep the noise. 4. He only accepted the job the salary, which was very high. 5. Sarah can’t climb up the tree her fear of heights. 6. his age, John was not hired he had the necessary qualifications. 7. Mary came to class late her motorbike had a puncture. 8. Sandy didn’t go to school yesterday she was sick. 9. She went to bed early her tiredness. 10. I couldn’t do the test it was too difficult. Exercise 5: Rewrite the sentences, using because/because of 1. He didn’t come because of his sickness.  2. The train was late because the fog was thick.  3. The plane couldn’t take off because of the bad weather.  4. He left the school because his family was poor.  5. We couldn’t study because of the noise.  6. I didn’t go swimming because it was cold.
  13.  7. These students arrive late because of the bad traffic.  8. Mary can’t sleep because she has drunk a cup of strong coffee.  9. Because of getting up early, he wasn’t late for the first train.  10. He was accepted for the job because he had much experience.  Exercise 6: Rewrite the sentences, using because/because of 1. Kevin has failed many times, so he disappointed.  2. I had not eaten for 24 hours. I was very hungry.  3. He ate all the fruits. The fruits were ripe.  4. He hadn’t finished the letter. He didn’t go to sleep.  5. He is dismissed. He was late for the work very often.  6. He drove too fast. He caused a serious accident.  7. The streets are narrow, so there are not many people driving cars in this city.  8. The test was so difficult that I couldn’t do it.  9. I don’t know Russian. I have to have my document translated into Russian.  10. The children had an accident. They went to school late.  2.3 : PHRASE AND CLAUSE OF RESULT 2.3.1 : ENOUGH AND TOO Exercise 1: Complete the second sentence with (not) too/ enough + adj/adv so that it has the same meaning as the first one.
  14. 1. The weather is fine. Mary and her little brother can go to school. The weather is for Mary and her little brother to go to school. 2. The sun is not warm. We can’t live on it. The sun is for us to live on. 3. The water is quite warm. I can drink it. The water is fo r me to drink. 4. The weather is so bad that we can’t go out. The weather is for us to go out. 5. The film was so boring that we couldn’t go on seeing it. The film was for us to go on seeing it. 6. He was so old that he couldn’t run fast. He was to run fast. 7. You speak so fast that I can’t catch up with your words. You speak for us me to catch up with your words. 8. It is so early that we can’t go out. It is for us to go out. 9. The film was very boring. We left before the end. The film was for us to leave before the end. 10. The water is so hot that I can’t drink it. The water is for me to drink. Exercise 2: Rewrite the sentences using too. 1. This soup is very hot. We can’t eat it.  2. This morning is very cold. We couldn’t go swimming.  3. She can’t carry the box; it’s very heavy. 
  15. 4. The room was very dirty. Nobody can learn it.  5. It was very late. She couldn’t go home.  6. The class was very tired. The teacher couldn’t explain the lesson.  7. She couldn’t see the film because it was very boring.  8. You can’t catch any taxi to the airport because it is very early.  9. It was very cold. They couldn’t keep working in the field.  10. The fair was very noisy. We couldn’t hear each other.  Exercise 3: Rewrite the sentences using enough. 1. These oranges are ripe. You can eat them.  2. They can’t sleep. They aren’t tired.  3. She is old, so she can drive a car.  4. All students had to stay at home because it rained heavily.  5. The truck can go through the gate because it is very wide.  6. Tom was very brave boy, so all his friends admired him.  7. The room was very comfortable. We all fell asleep easily.  8. He spoke slowly. We could understand him.  9. The soup is very excellent. We will have some.  10. They were very tired, so they stopped working?
  16.  Exercise 4: Tick  to the correct sentences and correct the wrong sentences. 1. He studied so badly that he couldn’t pass the exam.  2. It is very cold. We can’t bathe.  3. Would you be very kind and answer this letter by return?  4. The story was very funny. We couldn’t stop laughing.  5. The floor wasn’t strong. We couldn’t dance on it.  6. There were so many exercises that I couldn’t finish them in a short time.  7. He spoke so fast that we couldn’t understand him.  8. The restaurant is so expensive that we can’t eat in that restaurant.  9. The price of the house is very high. We can’t buy it.  10. I am very unhappy, so I cannot go out with him.  11. They sang very well. I could invite them to the party.  12. You are very young. You can’t have a front-door key.  13. I am rather old. I can’t wear that kind of hat.  14. The ladder wasn’t very long. It didn’t reach the window.  15. He hadn’t much money. He couldn’t live on it.  16. He was furious. He couldn’t speak.  17. The fire isn’t very hot. It won’t boil a kettle.
  17.  18. You are quite thin. You could slip between the bars.  19. He is very ill. He can’t eat anything.  20. Our new car is very wide. It won’t get through those gates.  Exercise 5: Rewrite the sentences using too or enough. 1. The question was very hard. We couldn’t answer it.  2. You’re very young. You can’t drive that car.  3. She was tired. She didn’t go anywhere.  4. These shoes are very small. I can’t wear them.  5. He is so weak. He can’t run.  6. The TV programmer is very exciting. The children won’t miss it.  7. The coffee was very hot. I could drink it.  8. He has a lot of money. He can buy a car.  9. He is very intelligent. He can do it.  10. Tom is strong. He can lift the box.  2.3.2 : SO THAT AND SUCH THAT Exercise 1: Rewrite the sentences with such that. 1. The room is so untidy that it took us one hour to clean it.  2. The man is so fool that no one took any notice of him.  3. The film is so long that they can't broadcast it on one night.
  18.  4. The books are so interesting that we have read them many times.  5. The news was so bad that she burst into tears on hearing it.  6. The food was so hot that it turned my tongue.  7. The boy is so fat that everyone calls him Stuffy.  8. The milk is so excellent that all the children want some more.  9. The weather was so warm that they had a walk in the garden.  10. The match was so exciting that all the fans shouted loudly.  Exercise 2: Rewrite the sentences with so that. 1. The coffee is extremely hot. The children can’t drink it.  2. My brother is very strong. He can lift this heavy table.  3. That play is very interesting. You should see it.  4. The suitcase is very heavy. Nobody can carry it upstairs.  5. My brother is very intelligent. He can do this difficult exercise.  6. The man is extremely poor. He can’t buy a new bike for his wife.  7. This coat is very short. He can’t wear it.  8. The tests were quite difficult. We couldn’t do them.  9. The boy is very lazy. Everybody hates him.  10. The girl is very intelligent. She can do this difficult exercise.
  19.  Exercise 3: Rewrite the sentences, beginning as available. 1. The woman was so poor that she needs everyone’s help. It 2. Mary is a good swimmer. She has won two gold medals. Mary 3. He drank strong coffee. He couldn’t go to sleep. He 4. It was a long walk. The children got tired. It 5. He had a difficult exercise. He couldn’t do it. It 6. The speaker gave a long talk. Most of the audience felt sleepy. The talk 7. We watched an exciting competition. We didn’t want to go home. The competition 8. It was an excellent show. We all enjoyed it. The show 9. His letter was rude. I didn’t know what to think. His letter 10. The train was so slow. It would have been faster to walk. It Exercise 4: Complete the sentences with so/such/such a. 1. It’s difficult to understand him because he speaks quietly. 2. I like Liz and Joe. They’re nice people. 3. It was a great holiday. We had good time. 4. I was surprised that he looked well after his recent illness. 5. Everything is expensive these days, isn’t it? 6. The weather is beautiful, isn’t it? I didn’t expect it to be nice day. 7. I have to go. I didn’t realise it was late. 8. He always looks good. He wears nice clothes.
  20. 9. It was boring film that I felt asleep while I was watching it. 10. I couldn’t believe the news. It was shock. 11. I think she works too hard. She looks tired all the time. 12. The food at the hotel was awful. I’ve never eaten awful food. 13. They’ve got much money they don’t know what to do with it. 14. I didn’t realise you lived long way from the city centre. 15. The party was really great. It was pity you couldn’t come. Exercise 5: Choose the correct answer. 1. He was so/such shy that he didn’t want to go to the party. 2. The dress was so/such small that I couldn’t wear it. 3. It was so/such a lovely night that we stayed outside until late. 4. It was so/such a long journey that we feel asleep. 5. She was so/such busy that she couldn’t have lunch. 6. The cat is so/such fat that it can’t walk. 7. She is so/such a good teacher that all the students like her. 8. I had so/such a terrible headache that I spent the whole day in bed. 9. It was so/such a boring book that I couldn’t finish reading it. 10. The weather was so/such hot that we couldn’t sleep at night. Exercise 6: Tick  to the correct sentences and Underline the mistake in each sentence. 1. I didn’t know you had so a big house. 2. I’ve never met such a kind people as your family. 3. It’s been such terrible weather that the farmers haven’t been able to grow anything. 4. If you weren’t such impatient, things would be better for you. 5. He always makes so fool of himself as nobody wants to make friends with him. 6. He always makes such a stupid mistakes. 7. He had such a fast car that he travelled everywhere in no time. 8. It’s so late and I won’t be able to catch my usual train.
  21. 9. He speaks so fast that I can understand nothing he says. 10. I have such much work that I can’t go out. 11. Why are you making so many noise? 12. He works so a hard that he looks exhausted most of the time. 13. There were so many people on the bus that I couldn’t find an empty seat. 14. If you keep on practicing so much, you’ll make a lot of progress. 15. He is so an idiot that everybody ignores him. 2.4 : PHASE AND CLAUSE OF PURPOSE Exercise 1: Match the sentences, using in order to/ so as to/ to. 1. The boys stood on the desks. They wanted to get a better view.  2. We learn English. We want to have better communication with other people.  3. We lower the volume. We don’t want to bother our neighbors.  4. I will write to you. I want you to know my decision soon.  5. These girls were talking whispers. They didn’t want anyone to hear their conversation.  6. I spoke loudly. I wanted everybody could hear me clearly.  7. You must take your umbrella. You won’t get wet.  8. Tom gets up early. He doesn’t want to be late for school.  9. I’m studying hard. I want to keep pace with my classmates.  10. Alice prepares her lessons carefully. She wants to get high marks in class.  Exercise 2: Match the sentences, using so that/in order that. 1. Mary often goes home as soon as the class is over. She doesn’t want her mother to wait for her. 
  22. 2. I took my camera. I wanted to take some photos.  3. He studied really hard. He wanted to get better marks.  4. Jason learns Chinese. His aim is to work in China.  5. I’ve collected money. I will buy a new car.  6. Many people left Turkey in 1960s. They wanted to find jobs in Germany.  7. She attends to a course. She wants to learn chess.  8. Linda turned on the lights. She wanted to see better.  9. I will come with you. I want to help you.  10. We are going to cinema. We will watch a horror film.  Exercise 3: Change from phrase into clause. 1. We hurried to school so as not to be late.  2. He climbed the tree in order to get a better view.  3. Some young people like to earn their own living in order to be independent of their parents.  4. We should do morning exercises so as to improve our health.  5. We should take advantage of the scientific achievements of the world so as to develop our national economy.  6. Every people in the world must unite their efforts to maintain and protect peace.  7. She put on warm clothes so as not to catch the cold.  8. He hurried to the station so as not to miss the train.
  23.  9. She locked the door in order not to be disturbed.  10. I tried to be on time so as not to make our teacher said.  Exercise 4: Change from clause into phrase, suing phrase in the parentheses. 1. People use money so that they can buy things they need. (in order to)  2. Banks are developed so that they can keep people’s money safe. (in order to)  3. I need to buy some laundry detergent so that I will wash my clothes. (in order to)  4. I came to this school so that I could learn English, (in order to)  5. Tom was playing very softly so that he wouldn’t disturb anyone. (in order not to)  6. They rushed into the burning house so that they could save the child. (in order to)  7. Lan often attends English speaking club so that she can practice speaking English. (so as to)  8. He stood on the chair so that she can see better. (in order to)  9. Please shut the gate so that the cows can’t get out of the cowshed. (in order to)  10. The boy tiptoed into the room because he didn’t want to wake up everybody up. (so as not to)  Exercise 5: Choose the correct answers. 1. I moved to the front of the room I could see better. A. so as to . B. in order to C. to D. so that 2. He opened the window let fresh air in. A. for B. to C. in order for D. so as 3. He turned out the light waste electricity. A. not B. without C. so that not D. in order not to
  24. 4. I am lighting the fire so that the house be warm when they return. A. would B. wouldn’t C. will D. won’t 5. Mary worked hard pass the examination. A. as so to B. so as to C. so that to D. in order not to 6. She is taking science course at school order to choose science for her profession. A. so B. on C. in D. at 7. She weighed herself know the pull of the earth exerting on her. A. for B. so that C. in order D. to 8. He hurried so that he miss the train. A. won’t B. doesn’t C. didn’t D. wouldn’t 9. He does morning exercises regularly to improve his health. A. not B. without C. so that not D. in order 10. Mary took her brother to school for him English. A. to learn B. learning C. learns D. learned Exercise 6: Choose the correct answers. 1. We have to start early we won’t be late. A. so that B. so as to C. because D. although 2. The school boys are in hurry they will not be late for school. A. so as to B. to C. in order that D. for 3. We set off early we wouldn’t get stuck in the traffic. A. although B. so that C. because D. in case 4. My mother went to London see my aunt’s family. A. in order to B. so that C. not to D. not 5. Julie saves money buy a new motorbike. A. not in order to B. as so to C. so that D. so that she can 6. Sarah went to the photocopy shop print out her research report.
  25. A. so that B. for C. to D. in order for 7. He studies very hard A. in order to fail the examination B. so that to get knowledge C. so as not to pass examination D. in order that he could be illiterate 8. “I spoke slowly. The foreigner could understand me.” Means: A. I spoke slowly so that the foreigner could understand me. B. I spoke slowly in order to the foreigner could understand me. C. I spoke slowly that the foreigner could understand me. D. I spoke slowly to make the foreigner could understand me. 9. He had to explain the lesson very clearly . A. in order that his students to understand it B. so that his students could understand it C. so as his students to understand it D. so that his students to understand it. 10. He hurried to the station. He didn’t want to miss the train. A. He hurried to the station so that he couldn’t miss the train. B. He hurried to the station in order that he couldn’t miss the train. C. He hurried to the station not to miss the train. D. All are correct.